According to this model, a political system is an autocracy
(dictatorship), a democracy, or a hybrid between these two
system types. Indices refer to participation (Democracy
Index, Vanhanen Index) or to participation and human
rights (Freedom House, Polity IV).
As clear this model appears to be, it does not take
essential output features of political systems, such as
peace and welfare, into account. So if an intervention
aiming at democracy results in an endurant civil war - see
the US military intervention in Iraq 2003- , a fatal third
system type, anomy, is given. That’s why indexing of
political systems should change from the outlined two-pole
model to a three-pole model that comprises autocracy,
democracy, and anomy (see figure 2).
Figure 2: The three-pole model of political systemsDemocracyAutocracyAnomy
Following this model, any political entity may be
understood and measured as more or less democratic,
autocratic, or anomic. Any graduation and mixture can be
registered within the shown triangle.
The People Index
Starting from the described three-pole model, we have
developed a quality index of political systems, The People
Index. Main indicators of this index are: A) Respect for the
people, B) Participation by the people, C) Coordination for
the people. These indicators are surveyed by answering
the following questions:
A) Respect 1. Are all inhabitants respected as free and equal citizens?2. Are fair and free procedures common?3. Are all international borders respected?B) Participation 1. May the people elect and recall their government?2. May the people participate in current decision-making?3. How representative are the people’s representations?C) Coordination 1. Is there guaranteed peace?2. Is the public infrastructure sufficiently fostered? 3. Is the economy well coordinated?4. How equally are the incomes distributed?5. Is health effectively protected?6. Are qualification and education, research & development well managed?7. Ecological and financial sustainability
Based on all reachable information, each question
is to be answered as well as possible coming to a
score between 0 and 100 (%). The answers are to
be worked out in a more and more substantiated
and differentiated way, open to the public
discussion. That’s why The People Index is a public
The sources of all used data shall be be cited.
The scores for each question are simply summed
up and divided by the number of scores without any
difference of weighting according to the following
= Score A
= Score B
----------------------------------- = Score C
The scores of the three main indicators mark the
principal system qualities of the evaluated entities
(such as countries):
If all three scores account for more than
66,66%, a country is evaluated as democracy. Vice
versa: Once only one system function is scored
lower than 66,66%, no democracy is given. That’s
why the two thirds line denotes a democracy
If all scores account for less than 33,33%, the
country is evaluated as anomy.
If at least one score out of the scores for
respect and participation lies below 33,33% and the
score for coordination lies above this line, the entity
is classified as autocracy.
Between these system types, individually aligned
hybrids are sorted.
Within the principal system types of democracy,
autocracy, and anomy, gradations are possible. So
a democracy that shows much lower scores for
respect and participation than for coordination may
be classified as relatively autocratic. Autocracies
and anomies, in turn, may show more or less
extreme values of certain indicators, for instance a
value approaching 0 for respect of the people.
Institutions are only indirectly relevant by influencing
the established function respect of, participation by,
coordination for the people. The People Index is
about political system functions.
By iteratively using the index, the qualitative
development of evaluated entities, such as certain